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The religion of Valluvar” says Dr.G.U.Pope, “is a standing puzzle” though Thirukkural of Tiruvalluvar is a mine of information and instruction is does not give as any clue to the life of it’s author. The name Tiruvalluvar means, “the great man of Valluvar community”, and the title of the work “Kural” signifies the meter of the poem he used. Neither the author not his work bears any proper or distinctive name.  

               Thirukkural is an epitome of morel codes applicable to all religion and nations. The author has taken the best of all religions and woven them together into a string pf beautiful pearls. Open minded and open hearted he welcomed all truths wherever found. “what’re it’s nature be-in that to see the truth, is knowledge”, (Kural.355). in spite of his religions integration and toleration, we cannot deny that Tiruvalluvar is a Jain and Thirukkural is a compendium of all scripture’s written by him the epithets. “Adi Bhagavan” (Arhat). Malarmisal Yakinan (one who walked on the lotus flower), Aravalianthanan (the Brahim who had the wheel of Dharma), Engunathan (he of the eight-fold qualities ) and Venduthal vendamailan (one who has no likes or dislikes) which Valluvar used in the opening  chapter of invocation to god are all applicable to Arhat alone. The subsequent Jain works Silapathikaram, Jeevakachinthamani, Tirukkalambakan, Tiruppamalai, Merumanthirapuranam etc…, also use the same works for the almighty. The Jain authors considered Thirukkural as their moral fode and used freely it’s golden sayings in their one works. The word “Engunalaraivan” is found in the inscription of the Jain temple at Tirumalai in north Ascot district.  

The birth place of Tiruvalluvar is also a matter of controversy. There is one tradition that it was Mylapore which was once a Jain center. Some scholar says that it was Madurai. Which has also a stronghold of Jainism. But there is substantial evidence to show that the birth place of Tiruvalluvar was Thirunayanarkuruchi near Muttam in  Kanyakumari district which was also a center of Jain domination. Jainism seems to have come into this area during the period of Chandragupta Maurya, when Bhadrabahu in anticipation of a twelve year famine, led an exodus of Jain monks to the south. The Jain monks who were in Ceylon before the  3rd Century B.C. are said to have migrated from India through Kanyakumari by land rout. 

The Lemuria theory which holds the view that there was a large mass of lands to south of Kanyakumari carries the history of this piece of land to very ancient times. The Paraliaru, now known as Palayaru. In the district is but Pahruli river in the lost Lemuria, swallowed by the sea. From the poetic inscription found in the Pandyan Dam on the river Palayaru. The dam is mentioned as “Paralyatru anai” it is also confirmed by the Travancore land revenue Manual which calls the river as Paraliaru. The submersion of the river Pahruli on the mountain Kumari under the see is mentioned in Silapathikaram. One of the twin epics in Tamil Literature.  

Adiyarkkunallar, the commentator of Silapathikaram gives a fine description of Kumarinadu and list of Tamil works which were in the land. The land made up of seven regions, deviled in to seven divisions, the division named Thenganadu and Kurumbananadu were in the area now known as Kanyakumari district in Thengapattinam and Kurumbanai their capitals, are known in the same district. The Huzur office plate which belongs to the eighth year of king Varaguna of any dynasty says that while staying at Tirunandikkarai the king Married Murygan Senthi daughter of Thenganattu Kilavan.  

Research scholars and oceanographers remark that the land to the south of Kanyakumari was the cradle of the human race. So it is appropriate to say that history of India, especially of Tamilnadu, should commence not from the north but from the south. There literary evidence to show that the first and second Tamil Sanghams ( Academy ) were held at south Madurai and Kapadapuram respectively in the lost continent of Kumari. Tholkappiam which appear in the period of second Sanghams is the only work which escaped from the sea, since the author belonged to the area which not swallowed by the sea.   

The name Athankottasan is found in the prefatory verse of Tholkappiam it mentions that the great Grammatical work was approved in the Academy under the chairmanship of Athankottasan ( the teacher Athankodu) in the presence of nilan Taru Tiruvin Pandyan. It is interesting to the note that Athankodu is a village in the Vialvankodu Taluk in Kanyakumari district. Certainly the author the Tholkapiyam was also a native no this area. Some of his works like Pani and Agatthu which  signify fever and inside respectively are in vogue one in Kanyakumari. Aveni which is the first month of the year according to Tholkappiar is observed as suon by the people of Kanyakumari. The word “Asan” which means an authority in literature, medicine, Astrology, Mantra, silampam (Weilding quarter staff) etc., is used in the same sense here. This district of hilly region consists of numerous places bearing names ending in kodu. Such as Kattimankodu, Thiruvathinkodu , Thiruvidaikodu, Pakodu, Vallikodu etc.,, (Kodu means a hill ). Indeed the name Vilavankodu is said to be derived from valluvankodu. 

Thirukkural is work subsequent to Tholkappiam; it’s author Tiruvalluvar is a native of Nanjilnad, the nucleus, Nagam Aiya’s travancore State Manual and Mudallar Palm leaf racords Throw some light on the History of Nanjilikuravan. The places Kurathiyarai and Kuravanthattuvillai near Alagiapandiyapuram ara positive proofs that Nanjilnad was dominated by Kuravas, otherwise known as valluvas, in days of yore. We have evidence in purananuru, an anthology of Tamil literature that Nanjilnad was ruled by one nanjil porunan, who has been eulogised bhy the poets Oruchirai Periyanar (Puram 137). Maruthan llanaganar (puram 138, 139), avviyar (puram 140) and karuvar kadapillai (puram 380). The commentator of Purananuru describes Porunan as Nanjil Valluvan. Karuvar Kadepillaim rmarks that valluvan was a chieftain under the Pandya King.  

To-day the name Nanjiled denotes the region compressing Agasteewaram and Thovaiai, the two southern most Taluks of Tamilnadu. But in ancient days it comprised a slightly bigger region. It is learnt by the place mangalam in vilavan kodu taluk and on the south by the manakkudi lake. 

Valluvanad was one of the division of Nanjilnad and it was ruled by a chieftain Valluvan, who happened to be a poet of Genius. No doubt he was closely related to Nanjilvalluvan. One of the inscription belonging to the 18th year of the great Chola King Raja Raja I found in the rock cut cave temple at Thirunandikkaral records the gift of the village of Muttam in Valluvanad to the temple of Thirunandikkaral and name of the village has been altered as Mummudi Cholanallur in all probability Thirunayanarkuruchi neat muttam in ancient Valluvannad was the birth place of Tiruvalluvar. One of the stanzas in Thiruvalluvanmalai says thus Tiruvalluvar is the pivot of “Punal Koodul”   shile Krishna is the Pivot of north Madurai. The old commentator claim that Punal Koodul is Madurai. But the world Punal koodal denotes Kanyakumari which is not only the meeting place of land and sea but also the confluence of the three oceans, the Bay of Bengal, the Indian ocean and the Arabian sea besides the river Palayaru, the remnant of the old river Pahruli in the lost Limuria.  

Like Mahavira and Buddha the chieftain Valluvan might have renounced the world and entered the literary field completely. The renunciation transformed the royal personage  into a spiritual thinker, a great reformer and one of the greatest philosophers that the world has known. With the experience earned during his royal career he was able write the chapters on love and political economy. After the completing his triple treatise on morality, Material Prosperity and love in 133 chapters each of ten couplets, Tiruvalluvar went to Mylapore where he was enshrined. In the south there is place by the name of Tiruvalluvar Nayanar and in Mylapore is the shrine dedicated to him. Thus he connects the south end mouth of Tamilnadu by his birth and death.  

In short the authors of Tholkappiam and Thirukkural the two eyes of Tamils are the natives of the southern tip of the peninsula, the remnants of the lost continent of Kumari. 


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