religion of Valluvar says Dr.G.U.Pope, is
a standing puzzle though Thirukkural of Tiruvalluvar
is a mine of information and instruction is does not give as any clue
to the life of its author. The name Tiruvalluvar means, the
great man of Valluvar community, and the title of the
work Kural signifies the meter
of the poem he used. Neither the author not his work bears any proper
or distinctive name.
Thirukkural is an epitome of morel codes applicable to all religion
and nations. The author has taken the best of all religions and woven
them together into a string pf beautiful pearls. Open minded and open
hearted he welcomed all truths wherever found. whatre
its nature be-in that to see the truth, is knowledge,
(Kural.355). in spite of his religions integration and toleration, we
cannot deny that Tiruvalluvar is a Jain and Thirukkural is a compendium
of all scriptures written by him the epithets. Adi
Bhagavan (Arhat). Malarmisal
Yakinan (one who walked on the lotus flower), Aravalianthanan
(the Brahim who had the wheel of Dharma), Engunathan
(he of the eight-fold qualities ) and Venduthal
vendamailan (one who has no likes or dislikes) which Valluvar
used in the opening chapter
of invocation to god are all applicable to Arhat alone. The subsequent
Jain works Silapathikaram, Jeevakachinthamani,
Tirukkalambakan, Tiruppamalai, Merumanthirapuranam
, also use the same works for the almighty. The Jain authors
considered Thirukkural as their moral fode and used freely its golden
sayings in their one works. The word Engunalaraivan
is found in the inscription of the Jain temple at Tirumalai in north Ascot
birth place of Tiruvalluvar is also a matter of controversy. There is
one tradition that it was Mylapore
which was once a Jain center. Some scholar says that it was Madurai.
Which has also a stronghold of Jainism. But there is substantial evidence
to show that the birth place of Tiruvalluvar was Thirunayanarkuruchi near
Muttam in Kanyakumari district
which was also a center of Jain domination. Jainism seems to have come
into this area during the period of Chandragupta Maurya, when Bhadrabahu
in anticipation of a twelve year famine, led an exodus of Jain monks to
the south. The Jain monks who were in Ceylon before the
3rd Century B.C. are said to have migrated from India
through Kanyakumari by land rout.
Lemuria theory which holds the view that there was a large mass of lands
to south of Kanyakumari carries the history of this piece of land to very
ancient times. The Paraliaru, now known as Palayaru. In the district is
but Pahruli river in the lost Lemuria, swallowed by the sea. From the
poetic inscription found in the Pandyan Dam on the river Palayaru. The
dam is mentioned as Paralyatru anai
it is also confirmed by the Travancore land revenue Manual which calls
the river as Paraliaru. The submersion of the river Pahruli on the mountain
Kumari under the see is mentioned in Silapathikaram. One of the twin epics
in Tamil Literature.
the commentator of Silapathikaram gives a fine description of Kumarinadu
and list of Tamil works which were in the land. The land made up of seven
regions, deviled in to seven divisions, the division named Thenganadu
and Kurumbananadu were
in the area now known as Kanyakumari district in Thengapattinam
and Kurumbanai their capitals,
are known in the same district. The Huzur office plate which belongs to
the eighth year of king Varaguna of any dynasty says that while staying
at Tirunandikkarai the king Married Murygan Senthi daughter of Thenganattu
scholars and oceanographers remark that the land to the south of Kanyakumari
was the cradle of the human race. So it is appropriate to say that history
of India, especially of Tamilnadu, should commence not from the north
but from the south. There literary evidence to show that the first and
second Tamil Sanghams ( Academy ) were held at south Madurai and Kapadapuram
respectively in the lost continent of Kumari. Tholkappiam
which appear in the period of second Sanghams is the only work which escaped
from the sea, since the author belonged to the area which not swallowed
by the sea.
name Athankottasan is found in the
prefatory verse of Tholkappiam it mentions that the great Grammatical
work was approved in the Academy under the chairmanship of Athankottasan
( the teacher Athankodu) in the presence of nilan Taru Tiruvin Pandyan.
It is interesting to the note that Athankodu is a village in the Vialvankodu
Taluk in Kanyakumari district. Certainly the author the Tholkapiyam was
also a native no this area. Some of his works like Pani and Agatthu which
signify fever and inside respectively are in vogue one in Kanyakumari.
Aveni which is the first month of the year according to Tholkappiar is
observed as suon by the people of Kanyakumari. The word Asan
which means an authority in literature, medicine, Astrology, Mantra, silampam
(Weilding quarter staff) etc., is used in the same sense here. This district
of hilly region consists of numerous places bearing names ending in kodu.
Such as Kattimankodu, Thiruvathinkodu , Thiruvidaikodu, Pakodu, Vallikodu
etc.,, (Kodu means a hill ).
Indeed the name Vilavankodu is said to be derived from valluvankodu.
is work subsequent to Tholkappiam; its author Tiruvalluvar is a
native of Nanjilnad, the nucleus, Nagam Aiyas travancore State Manual
and Mudallar Palm leaf racords Throw some light on the History of Nanjilikuravan.
The places Kurathiyarai and Kuravanthattuvillai near Alagiapandiyapuram
ara positive proofs that Nanjilnad was dominated by Kuravas, otherwise
known as valluvas, in days of yore. We have evidence in purananuru, an
anthology of Tamil literature that Nanjilnad was ruled by one nanjil porunan,
who has been eulogised bhy the poets Oruchirai Periyanar (Puram 137).
Maruthan llanaganar (puram 138, 139), avviyar (puram 140) and karuvar
kadapillai (puram 380). The commentator of Purananuru describes Porunan
as Nanjil Valluvan. Karuvar Kadepillaim rmarks that valluvan was a chieftain
under the Pandya King.
the name Nanjiled denotes the region compressing Agasteewaram and Thovaiai,
the two southern most Taluks of Tamilnadu. But in ancient days it comprised
a slightly bigger region. It is learnt by the place mangalam in vilavan
kodu taluk and on the south by the manakkudi lake.
was one of the division of Nanjilnad and it was ruled by a chieftain Valluvan,
who happened to be a poet of Genius. No doubt he was closely related to
Nanjilvalluvan. One of the inscription belonging to the 18th
year of the great Chola King Raja Raja I found in the rock cut cave temple
at Thirunandikkaral records the gift of the village of Muttam in Valluvanad
to the temple of Thirunandikkaral and name of the village has been altered
as Mummudi Cholanallur in all probability Thirunayanarkuruchi neat muttam
in ancient Valluvannad was the birth place of Tiruvalluvar. One of the
stanzas in Thiruvalluvanmalai says thus Tiruvalluvar is the pivot of Punal
shile Krishna is the Pivot of north Madurai. The old commentator
claim that Punal Koodul is Madurai. But the world Punal koodal denotes
Kanyakumari which is not only the meeting place of land and sea but also
the confluence of the three oceans, the Bay of Bengal, the Indian ocean
and the Arabian sea besides the river Palayaru, the remnant of the old
river Pahruli in the lost Limuria.
Mahavira and Buddha the chieftain Valluvan might have renounced the world
and entered the literary field completely. The renunciation transformed
the royal personage into
a spiritual thinker, a great reformer and one of the greatest philosophers
that the world has known. With the experience earned during his royal
career he was able write the chapters on love and political economy. After
the completing his triple treatise on morality, Material Prosperity and
love in 133 chapters each of ten couplets, Tiruvalluvar went to Mylapore
where he was enshrined. In the south there is place by the name of Tiruvalluvar
Nayanar and in Mylapore is the shrine dedicated to him. Thus he connects
the south end mouth of Tamilnadu by his birth and death.
In short the authors of Tholkappiam and Thirukkural the two eyes of Tamils are the natives of the southern tip of the peninsula, the remnants of the lost continent of Kumari.
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